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Bone Marrow Transplants


Bone marrow is a normal tissue that is flexible and present in the interior of the bones. The BMT or Bone Marrow Transplantat is the transplantation of the blood stem cells that has been derived from the bone marrow. It is also known as HSCT or Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Who needs it?

People who have been diseased with the aplastic anemia, lymphomas, leukemias, solid tumor cancer, immune deficiency disorder, bone barrow, blood or certain kinds of cancer need the Bone Marrow Transplantation.


The objective of the BMT is replacing an unhealthy bone marrow with a healthy bone marrow cell.

Bone Marrow Transplant at Best Cancer Hospitals in Delhi, India

Basically, there are many types of the bone marrow transplant that dependent on the donor.

In this transplantation, the patient himself or herself is a donor. The stem cells are taken from the same patient in two ways. It is taken either from apheresis or bone marrow harvest. These stem cells are then transplanted to the patient in an intensive treatment.

This transplantation needs a donor, other than the patient. The donor needs to be the same genetic type that of a recipient or patient. Most probably, 25 to 30 percent donors are found from the sister or brother. However, genetically-matched donor is needed to take stem cells from, for the apheresis or bone marrow harvest. So, the donors who can be suitable are a parent, an identical twin or unrelated genetically matched bone marrow transplant donors.

The Umbilical cord blood cell is the stem cell taken from the umbilical cord of an infant after the delivery. These stem cells are well functioning blood cells, replicating into mature function. They function as much better stem cells that are compared to the bone marrows from the donor. Before they are considered for the transplantation, these stem cells are tested, counted, typed and frozen.

How to select the Donor?

The matching of the donor and recipient involves the matching of the type of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) tissue. The genetic make-up of the immune system would be dogged by the antigens on white blood cell surfaces. Only a few major antigens are necessary to be matched, though there are over 1000 HLA antigens are present in the body.

Procedure of Bone Marrow Transplant in Delhi, India

The BMT involves the procedure of taking stem cells taken from a healthy bone marrow, filter the cells and then transplant into another person.

Before the procedure of BMT starts, it needs preparation of three factors

The preparation of the regimen is started before 8 days of the transplantation and so patient joins in the hospital at the same time.

Side effects and complications after BMT

The complications, post to the transplantation, do differ according to various factors like overall health and age of the patient. Other factors would be kind of marrow transplant, type of disease that required transplant, severe complications presence, preparative regimen or variance of the donor tissue that matches with the recipient.

Post Transplantation

The procedure of BMT involves infusion of the bone marrow and patient will experience, chills, pain, fever, hives and chest pain. After the infusion, the patient might be susceptible to infection, confined to a sterile environment, may have blood transfusions, undergo continual laboratory testing, take many antibiotics and many other medications, experience excessive bleeding, experience vomiting, mouth sores, nausea, diarrhea and extreme weakness. He or she also may feel psychological distress, emotional distress, mental confusion for a temporary period, may go through medication in order to prevent graft-versus-host disease.

So, the patient needs to spend a few weeks in the hospital until the he or she becomes normal.


The complete recovery of the patient needs a few months of time and sometimes longer after discharged from the hospital. During this period, he or she will not be able to attend to normal & regular activities and cannot attend to the work. It needs recurrent follow-up visits for regular check-ups to the physician.

Engraftment after the Procedure

Engraftment is a process applied to the stem cell entered into the recipient’s body. From this process, the stem cell that is donated proceed reproducing the new blood cells in the recipient’s body. This process starts after 15 to 30 days, according to the disease and its complexity. To understand the pace of this process, the blood counts are regularly assessed for progress and instigation. Engraftment process might be delayed in the conditions like infections, low donated stem cell count, medications or graft failure. To get the complete recovery of the entire immune system, it may take from months to years.



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